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An observational study on factors associated with ICU mortality in Covid-19 patients and critical review of the literature.

  • Academic Journal
  • Scientific Reports; 5/13/2023, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p1-13, 13p
  • The novel pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been associated with increased burden on healthcare system. Recognizing the variables that independently predict death in COVID-19 is of great importance. The study was carried out prospectively in a single ICU in northern Greece. It was based on the collection of data during clinical practice in 375 adult patients who were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between April 2020 and February 2022. All patients were intubated due to acute respiratory insufficiency and received Invasive Mechanical Ventilation. The primary outcome was ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes were 28-day mortality and independent predictors of mortality at 28 days and during ICU hospitalization. For continuous variables with normal distribution, t-test was used for means comparison between two groups and one-way ANOVA for multiple comparisons. When the distribution was not normal, comparisons were performed using the Mann–Whitney test. Comparisons between discrete variables were made using the x2 test, whereas the binary logistic regression was employed for the definition of factors affecting survival inside the ICU and after 28 days. Of the total number of patients intubated due to COVID-19 during the study period, 239 (63.7%) were male. Overall, the ICU survival was 49.6%, whereas the 28-day survival reached 46.9%. The survival rates inside the ICU for the four main viral variants were 54.9%, 50.3%, 39.7% and 50% for the Alpha, Beta, Delta and Omicron variants, respectively. Logistic regressions for outcome revealed that the following parameters were independently associated with ICU survival: wave, SOFA @day1, Remdesivir use, AKI, Sepsis, Enteral Insufficiency, Duration of ICU stay and WBC. Similarly, the parameters affecting the 28-days survival were: duration of stay in ICU, SOFA @day1, WBC, Wave, AKI and Enteral Insufficiency. In this observational cohort study of critically ill COVID-19 patients we report an association between mortality and the wave sequence, SOFA score on admission, the use of Remdesivir, presence of AKI, presence of gastrointestinal failure, sepsis and WBC levels. Strengths of this study are the large number of critically ill COVID-19 patients included, and the comparison of the adjusted mortality rates between pandemic waves within a two year-study period. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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