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CONTRIBUTION OF THE FIVE-YEAR DEVELOPMENT PLANS TO TOURISM IN TURKEY.

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ULUSAL BEŞ YILLIK KALKINMA PLANLAMALARIN TÜRKİYE TURİZMİNE KATKISI. (Turkish)
In the study, the goals of Turkey's tourism have been determined along with tourism revenues and the number of tourists in the five year development plan. Then, the growth rates of the tourism revenues and the number of tourists were compared between different planned periods. After that, the change of tourism revenues was evaluated in terms of export and GNP (Gross National Product) as well. Finally, the development of Turkey's tourism was evaluated in the planned periods in terms of its the number of tourists, the rate of change in the number of tourists, average of the rate of change in the number of tourists, tourism income, the rate of change in tourism income, average of the rate of change in tourism income, average of expenditure per visitor, average of tourism income in export and average of the rate of tourism income in the Gross National Product (GNP). The purpose of the research is to put forward the realization rate of the desired targets in five year development plan in between 1963-2012 years in the Tourism sector in Turkey. The data set used in the study were taken from different national and international organizations, namely TÜİK (Turkish Statistical Institute), Republic of Turkey Ministry of Development, Ministry of Culture and Tourism, and UNWTO (World Tourism Organization). In the study, the number of facilities with tourism business license in Turkey has been transferred into a GIS environment by ArcGIS 10.1 together with the number of beds they included for the years 1980, 2000, and 2012. The data for the number of facilities and the beds they contained by province were only obtained for the post 1980 period. Therefore, distribution maps of the number of facilities and their bed numbers by province were produced in the years 1980 and 2012 in order to demonstrate the temporal change. Additionally, the standard deviation ellipse was applied to determine the spatial patterns of the trends of the tourism facilities in Turkey over a 32-year period. The main research question of the study was to what extent the goals of Turkey's tourism were achieved in the planned development periods. The contribution of tourism sector in Turkey's economy is increasing day by day. Turkey has been 6th in terms of the number of tourists in 2012 and 10th in terms of tourism income in the world with the investments towards tourism after 1980. By 2012, the rate of tourism towards the national income is 4% and the rate of tourism in export is more than 20%. In this development in the tourism of Turkey five-year development plans were influential. Since 1963, the targets towards the development of tourism were determined in these plans. Although the targets were not completely reached, with these plans tourism was developed more systematically, either the number of tourists or the tourism income increased regularly and the financial, social and environmental effects of tourism seen better. In each plan period the different varieties of tourism were taken into consideration, hence, the development of tourism in Turkey were more planned and more concrete targets for future were determined. Although investments in infrastructure and superstructure in tourism sector, the number of tourists, tourism revenues and for activities such as promotion was planned with five-year development plans; political, economic, social instability and natural disasters in Turkey have adversely affected to planned targets. However, the overall contribution of the development plans to Turkey's tourism development is great. In Planned period; tourism revenues and the average change in the number of tourists influenced by political, economic and social events in Turkey and showed an irregular development. In the First Five-Year Development Plan (1963-1967) the average change in the number of tourists with a maximum 23.7%, yet; the minimum 0.4% realized in 6th Five-Year Development Plan (1979-1983) when 1980's coup happened. In this period, due to political instability and security problems, demand to Turkey was decreased. In 1976, the number of tourists visiting Turkey 1.675.846 increased, number of tourists continuously decreasing following years decreased 1.288.060 because of effects millitary coup in 1980. Since 1983 increasing the number of tourists has been observed with the increasing political and economic stability. It caused fluctuations in the demand of tourists coming to Turkey because of the occurrence of similar economic, social, political problems in 6th and 7th Five-Year Development Plan period. Despite the increase in the number of tourists every year in 9th The Five-Year Development Plan period, the conflicts in neighboring countries have affected Turkey, particularly since 2010 and expected targets was unrealized, the average change in the number of tourists reached 8.18% that was the second lowest value in the planned period. When average of the rate of change in tourism revenues was maximum 52.4% in 2th Five-Year Development Plan Period (1968-1972), the lowest was realized 8.2% in 9th Five-Year Development Plan (1979-1983). Since 1990, it has been observed that a significant increase in tourism revenues. Due to the political problems and earthquake in 1998-1999, both the number of coming tourists and tourism revenues decreased. The increase in tourism revenues continued until 2009, but after 2009 tourism revenues remained below expectations; therefore, the lowest average of the period was occured. With the planned period, the tourism income and the number of tourists of Turkey has continuously increased. and also increased after 1980. The most significant reason of this situation is the increase of tourism investments after the reliable conditions in Turkey. In all plan periods; 5th planned period and 8th Planned period are important in terms of Turkey tourism. (The most important increase in this period) The most tourism income and the number of tourists of Turkey in the planned period is the 5th development period, due to the political consistency, the increase of foreign investments and tourism advertisements in Turkey. The other important period, in terms of Turkey tourism is the 8th planned period. Besides the increase in the number of tourists and tourism revenues in this period, 8th planned period is the highest period in average of expenditure per visitor, average of tourism income in export and average of the rate of tourism income in the Gross National Product (GNP). In the 2000s, despite a significant increase in terms of tourism in Turkey in this indicators, unfortunately, these values began to fall in later years. It is necessary to reach the level of other countries which are developed in tourism and compete with Turkey, for the development of tourism in Turkey, as well as increasing the number of tourists, which is an important indicator for the development of tourism; such as values; the rate of change in tourism income, tourism income in export, average of Expenditure per visitor (For example, in Turkey the average of expenditure per visitor increased in the highest $850. But this rate is under the level of developed countries such as France, the USA and Italy in terms of tourism income) and the rate of tourism income in the Gross National Product (GNP). [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Ekonomik, toplumsal, eğitim ve siyasal faktörlerin gelişerek, insanların yaşam kalitesinin maddi ve manevi alanlarda ilerlemesi ve toplumsal refahın artması ülkenin kalkınmasına bağlıdır. Ekonomik kalkınma turizmi etkilerken, turizmde meydana gelen gelişmeler de ekonomik kalkınmayı etkilemektedir. Türkiye'de; kırsal kalkınmaya yaptığı katkı, yatırımları uyarıcı etkisi, istihdam ve gelir olanakları sağlaması gibi sebeplerden dolayı, kalkınma planlarında turizme daha fazla önem verilmektedir. Türkiye'de 1963 yılından itibaren her beş yılda kalkınma planları hazırlanmış ve bu planlar, kamu yatırımları için zorunlu hedefler, özel yatırımlar için ise yol gösterici hedefler içermektedir. Türkiye'de 1963-1983 yılları arası Kalkınma Planlarındaki hedeflere; siyasi ve ekonomik istikrarsızlık, imkânların sınırlı olması gibi sebeplerden dolayı ulaşılamazken, 1983-2012 yılları arasında Türkiye turizmi açısından olumlu gelişmeler yaşanmıştır. 1983'den sonra turizm yatırımların artmasıyla, Türkiye'nin turist sayısı ve turizm gelirleri sürekli artış göstermiştir. Türkiye; 2000 yılında turist sayısı bakımından dünyada 20. ve turizm gelirleri bakımından 14. sırada iken, 2012 yılında turist sayısı bakımından altıncı, turizm gelirleri bakımından onuncu sıraya yükselerek, dünyanın en fazla tercih edilen destinasyonlarından biri haline gelmiştir. Türkiye turizmindeki bu gelişmede beş yıllık kalkınma planlamaların katkısı önemlidir. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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