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Direct medical cost associated with diabetic retinopathy severity in type 2 diabetes in Singapore.

  • Academic Journal
  • PLoS ONE; 7/10/2017, Vol. 12 Issue 7, p1-11, 11p
  • Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision-loss globally among type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. Information on the economic burden of DR in Singapore is limited. We aim to identify the total annual direct medical costs of DR at different stages, and to examine factors influencing the costs. Four hundreds and seventy T2DM patients who attended the Diabetes Centre in a secondary hospital in Singapore in 2011–2014 were included. Digital color fundus photographs were assessed for DR in a masked fashion. Retinopathy severity was further categorized into non-proliferative DR (NPDR), including mild, moderate and severe NPDR, and proliferative DR (PDR). Medical costs were assessed using hospital administrative data. DR was diagnosed in 172 (39.5%) patients, including 51 mild, 62 moderate and 18 severe NPDR, and 41 PDR. The median cost in DR [2012.0 (1111.2–4192.3)] was significantly higher than that in non-DR patients [1158.1 (724.1–1838.9)] (p
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