Mobile Information Systems. 5/24/2022, p1-11. 11p.
With the advancement of digital technology, new tools and methods in education are being developed to improve teaching and learning. The use of technology in educational activities improves the functional, cognitive, and psychomotor skills of students. This study investigated the application of mobile media in the improvement of ideological and political education. The concepts, features, and types of the new media under 5G are defined, and specific forms, opportunities, and challenges of applications of new media in the ideological and political education of colleges are analyzed. The use of new media applications among college students is investigated using the "xuexi.cn" application software. Results show that various mobile applications of new media have the best foreground in the media technologies. Applying new media technologies to ideological and political education is not just an innovation in the method of ideological and political education but also is an extension and supplement to traditional ideological and political classes. Colleges should use new media technologies effectively and scientifically to create a good environment for college students and help them get a better knowledge of ideological and political education. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Impacts of Mobile Media on the Ideological and Political Education in Colleges under 5G1. Introduction
With the advancement of digital technology, new tools and methods in education are being developed to improve teaching and learning. The use of technology in educational activities improves the functional, cognitive, and psychomotor skills of students. This study investigated the application of mobile media in the improvement of ideological and political education. The concepts, features, and types of the new media under 5G are defined, and specific forms, opportunities, and challenges of applications of new media in the ideological and political education of colleges are analyzed. The use of new media applications among college students is investigated using the "xuexi.cn" application software. Results show that various mobile applications of new media have the best foreground in the media technologies. Applying new media technologies to ideological and political education is not just an innovation in the method of ideological and political education but also is an extension and supplement to traditional ideological and political classes. Colleges should use new media technologies effectively and scientifically to create a good environment for college students and help them get a better knowledge of ideological and political education.
Along with the arrival of the 5G era, various new media technologies come after another. New media technology has a great impact on people's living and opportunities for every industry []. Personality, digitalization, interactivity, normalization, and life-oriented characterize the new media, making new media a necessary part of people's living, due to which ideological and political education in college has a broader platform and space []. New media and network technologies coexist, and the evolution of network technology has significantly altered the nature of new media. Mobile and network terminals become a vital source and method in people's work, learning, and living. New kinds of learning platforms and applications are developed, broadened, and innovated to meet the requirement of people []. New media learning platforms make learning free of time and space limits and give people a new experience of learning [].
New media under the 5G era makes a breakthrough of time and space in learning providing an interactive and virtual environment. These characteristics are related to those of today's college students, who are seeking novelty and valuing personality []. The new media heavily affected the lives and studies of college students. New media is based on the network, and new methodologies are increasingly vital in defining new media under 5G, measuring the positive and negative impact of new media technologies on college students' learning and living and investigating new uses of new media in college ideological and political education (IPE). [].
Presently, the research results on the construction of ideological and physical education are very rich []. According to Zhou [], the college should improve the creation of IPE cultural carriers by setting clear goals, establishing principles, enhancing material, and perfecting guarantee mechanisms. Wang X and Wang N [] described that the present social value orientation is shifting in a new direction, and that IPE at colleges has brought new issues with it. The authors in [] proposed that the increasing popularity of new mobile media creates a stronger influence on the life and study of college students, as well as provides a mechanism to reinvent the IPE model. Tao and Lv [] used the questionnaire and data analysis methods to investigate the specific situation of controlling students using smartphones through the questionnaire, to explore new educational methods and techniques for the construction of IPE in colleges. Wang [] used mobile multimedia technology in the IPE course's multimedia teaching, created a mobile multimedia teaching platform for the IPE course, and proposed the use of mobile technology in IPE. Cui [] investigated the positive effects of mobile phone new media on IPE in colleges and universities, as well as the downsides of using mobile new media in IPE, and proposed a strategy for using new mobile media in ideological education in colleges and universities. Liu and Shao [] proposed that new media can play an effective role in IPE for college students. In their studies, only 60% of teachers' normal use of new media was examined, and the methods of enhancing media literacy education are investigated from three aspects: social factors, media factors, and students' factors. The authors in [] integrated the short video recommendation model with the features of new media to recommend innovative ideas for ideological and political work in colleges. Ford and Jennings [] employed the Western European political profile and discussed the critical problems in higher education. Shchepetylnykova and Alvis [] explored the role of international development activities in the overall internationalization of American public higher education institutions. They concluded that foreign development efforts helped public universities fulfill their missions of education, research, and service. Furthermore, at American colleges, IPE focused on the combination of generic patriotism and national spirit and integrated explicit and implicit courses, with implicit courses receiving more emphasis for their instructional role. According to Rogoza et al. [], factors such as human personality and self-esteem have different characteristics that influence each other. As a result, the concept of the coexistence of knowledge and interest, as well as the teaching-learning transaction, should be integrated into the teaching effect while taking students' personalities into account. A data-mining technique for evaluating teaching quality was proposed by Moody [] and provided a list of metrics. They also determined the mining object, data selection, data-mining method, and special mining steps in the cluster analysis, as well as the mining process and specific classification in the study of association rules.
This study examined how mobile media may be used to better ideological and political education. Concepts, characteristics, and varieties of new media under 5G are outlined, as well as particular forms, opportunities, and problems of new media applications in college IPE. Using the "xuexi.cn" application software, the use of new media apps among college students is explored. The findings suggest that several new media mobile applications have the best foreground in media technology. The incorporation of new media technologies into IPE is not only a new technique of IPE but also a compliment and extension of old ideological and political courses. Consequently, countermeasures and advice to the effective application of new media in IPE in college are proposed.
The rest of the manuscript is organized as follows: Section 2 is about materials and methods and provides a detailed description of the new mobile media and its application. Section 3 provides different results of the usage of new mobile media and its applications, and Section 4 concludes the manuscript.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. New Media
The key to understanding the nature, forms, and developing direction of new media in IPE in college is to fully understand the nature, forms, and developing direction of new media. Only the internal link between new media and IPE in college is identified and the new media be applied in ideological and political education in college properly and successfully. As a result, before comprehending and understanding new media, it is essential to define its characteristics and forms []. Every progress in scientific technology causes an overturning change in new media. In the development of communication until now, there are 5 major transforms in new media. Every transform is a giant leap in human development, which starts from the earliest newspaper to the radio, then to the earliest television and network television, finally from the Internet to sharing self-media []. When compared to traditional media, new media is a relative concept. In contrast to traditional media, such as newspapers, radio, and television, new media is a brand-new medium created by a rapidly growing network. New media is not only new in the information transmitting methods but also the innovation of technologies. It uses several kinds of network digitalization technologies to transmit digitalized information to users. All users can receive information transmitted by new media whenever they want. New media includes digitalized and network-oriented traditional media and other brand-new media []. Hereby, new media is defined as a media that uses 5G network technology and digitalize media contents (words, pictures, audios, and videos) then transform them into the users' mobile equipment through the Internet, mobile network, satellites, PC (personal computer), mobile phone, network-oriented digitalized television, mobile applications, and other channels. New media is digitalized media, through which people can receive the current information whenever and at any location []. Figure 1 shows important features of new media, compared to traditional media [].
Graph: Figure 1 Features of new media.
In the IPE of colleges, as well as party and government organs, the "xuexi.cn" App, which was designed by the CPC Central Committee's Propaganda Department to conduct IPE of the party constitution and history, is concurrently installed on PC and mobile phone networks. Based on the Internet technology, "xuei.cn" App has a clear and determined content-producing system. Self-built article contribution system of "xuei.cn" App produces professional, standardized, and unified content. With provinces, cities, and countries' propaganda departments as major basements, there are clear chains between each article's contribution department, which forms a total content-producing industry. Articles on each contribution chain are reviewed and examined to remove the barrier in the communication. Figure 2 shows the article's contribution chain.
Graph: Figure 2 Article contribution access of "xuexi.cn" App.
2.2. Feasibility Analyses of New Media Application in the IPE of Colleges
The application of new media can thoroughly realize the people-oriented idea of IPE. New media based on the 5G network technologies can be loaded using various Apps for users to learn whenever and wherever they want, which indicates its feasibility. Meanwhile, learning content can be made more systematic and the learning process more interactive and sharable. Content, location, structure, and unit of learning all can be personalized by users. The "xuexi.cn" App is popular with the IPE of college students. A large number of a user is the unique advantage of "xuexi.cn" App. And as a new network media, its methods of conducting IDE make it especially advanced, content that is vivid, interesting, and fascinating. It has become an important tool to promote the effect of IPE on the students. Besides, what "xuexi.cn" App provides is an opener platform for users to interact and share information, which helps to spread and extend socialist core values. The contents of the App are abundant and easy to cause spiritual resonance between users. With multiforms of content and strong physical organs experience, this unique mode of transmission makes IPE not boring anymore. Furthermore, it provides new methods of IPE to college students, which traditional media cannot []. In this study, we computed the time segment using "xuexi.cn" App, usage frequency of "xuexi.cn" App, durable hours, usage frequency of each function, and ways of using "xuexi.cn" App, which is computed as
where N is the time of using "xuexi.cn", and S is the total number of people investigated.
where IQR : interquartile distance; Q1: smaller quartile; Q3: larger quartile.
The direction of new media development meets the "advance with the times" idea of IPE. The development of society decides that methods of ideological political education should be optimized. With the variety of themes of the time and rapid development of modern scientific technologies, IPE should be transformed to a certain degree to meet the need of society. Along with the 5G era's arrival, it is more convenient to spread information. Besides, the government carries out related policies to make more investment into the new media. These create a better circumstance for the development of new media. New media reflects the "advancement" in the "advance with the times" idea, and that methods of ideological and political education cannot be limited to the traditional ones. Methods of ideological and political education should be upgraded under the "advance with the times" idea and added with new media technology applications. The "xuexi.cn" App reflects the "advance with the times" idea, and its release changes the single and tedious mode of the traditional way of IPE. The enthusiasm of college students toward IPE is enhanced. And the App provides the teacher's team of IPE with the new potential resource. These teachers should make the best of the form and contents of the App to propel in formalization transform in IPE with digital information technologies. The "xuexi.cn" has insisted on proper propaganda direction and has become the major platform of IPE in the new era [].
2.3. Application Analyses of New Media in the IPE
Traditional methods have been taken as the only methods in the IPE. Colleges conduct ideological and political classes to educate college students. But with the arrival of the 5G era and the impact of the new media, some college classes except IPE see huge changes with the applications of new media. Teachers make lectures through live broadcast in class, online video meetings, and so on, which get rid of the limits of time and space []. Thus, new media should be applied to explore new measures to make IPE more attractive and up to date. There is nothing new in the traditional ideological and political classes. They are tedious and mechanical, and most information of which are handled with the teachers' hand. The only access to this knowledge is a teacher. According to the survey, 95% of college students feels bored with this lecturing method. Access to information is becoming more convenient, with quantities of platforms and Apps applied and popularized in the colleges []. Furthermore, college can get more abundant knowledge. And they are more positive to use new media to learn. Therefore, the application of new media technologies into the traditional ideological and political education of college students will remove the shortages and solve the problems in traditional methods. There are two major types of application of new media in the IPE of colleges: (i) Appending new media technologies and action related to the courses, teachers can search for some interesting information related to the IPE and combine them with political theories into PowerPoint courseware, which are vivid, attractive to students, and close with the themes of the times. In addition, new media increases interaction between teachers and students and fulfills teaching methods. It expands the courses of the education into the before-class section and after-class section. (ii) Relying on the new media technologies, colleges can make it a resource to create an IPE website or other network platforms. With the deep development of the new media, network platforms such as WeChat public number, Weibo topics, and TikTok are generally applied in the ideological and political education of college students. Ideological and political education are familiar to students and easy for them to understand on these platforms. Thoughtful materials, knowledge, fun, and services are integrated by these network platforms to conduct IPE [].
2.4. Opportunities Analyses of New Media in the IPE
New media enhances the self-study ability of college students and fulfills the content and resource of IPE. In the traditional ideological and political classes, education is made by interpretation of teachers, in which there are too many limits on the content and resource and resources of these classes are not the latest. With the arrival of new media, especially the 5G era, sharable information makes both teachers and students able to get interesting information in the same platform and background. It is exactly the reason that teachers and students have a perception of some information to the same degree. In an unseen way, new media transmits information to teachers and students simultaneously, giving them more access to knowledge. Under the 5G, the educated obtains new methods to get information []. Because of the new tools that the educated handle, they are easier to get new information than their teachers. Therefore, at the aspect of obtaining knowledge, the educated are no more negative in the teaching process. Even they are at a higher altitude than their teachers, with the help of new media []. Students can have a glimpse of the events happening in other countries in the world, such as the latest progress in different industries and conflicts between different areas through various new media platforms. They can also express their opinions and views through kinds of new media platforms. Both teachers and students pick up broader information platforms through this form. And time efficiency is exactly what ideological and political education requires. Furthermore, new media changes the way of transmitting the information. A joyful and pleasing method is used to present the pictures, videos, and audio information replacing the original form in the textbooks to students so that they can get ideological and political education in a delighting circumstance, which makes ideological and political classes fresh and modern.
New media contributes to the methods innovation of IPE. The method of IPE is one of the important factors in connecting teachers and students and realizing the education purpose of teachers []. Under the traditional media, IPE is carried out mainly in the forms such as teaching in the classroom, lectures by experts, face-to-face talking, and regular meetings. But these forms somehow change ideological and political education into a tedious thing in different degrees. And there is always a distance between teachers and students in these forms. Educators seldom hold the ideological situation of the educated well, and the teaching effect is not good as well. But new media technologies inject ideological and political education with more vitality and provide it with more efficient and convenient teaching methods. New media technologies provide educators with a new platform to conduct IPE work, such as the development of some related App, the popularization of WeChat public number, and short video App, which help to broaden the space of IPE work and platform.
2.5. Challenges Analyses of New Media in the IPE
New media's existence relies on network technology. Same as for network technology, when new media brings endless opportunities, it also brings challenges as well as impacts to work, study, and living of educators and the educated [–]. As to educators, they need to constantly update their knowledge and techniques to follow the steps of the times. Because new media develops very fast, which makes data updating more rapidly, causing shortening of knowledge updating period, new media technologies have penetrated every corner of their lives. When they enjoy the convenience that new media technologies bring to them, they need to change their learning methods. College students are getting more dependent on the new media. When a problem occurs, they directly rush to "Baidu" other than thinking by themselves. These things are detrimental to their ability to think and innovate.
3.1. Influences of New Media on the Use of the Internet and Mobile App of College Students
According to an Internet survey, until June 2021, students take the highest percentage of China's citizens using the Internet, which is 27.6%. This rate is still rising. At the aspect of the ages, netizens aged between 20 and 29 take the highest percentage, which is 26.2%. There are 27.6% students whose average use of mobile App is 23% (regardless of the operating system of mobile). Figure 3 shows the utilization of the Internet and mobile of China's netizens in the second half of 2020.
Graph: Figure 3 Utilizations of the Internet and mobile of China's netizen in the second half of 2020. (a) Scale of network users. (b) Scale of student users. (c) Utilization of netizens.
Likewise, Figure 4 shows the utilization of mobile App of China's netizens in the first half of 2021.
Graph: Figure 4 Utilization of mobile App of China's netizens in the first half of 2021. (a) Scale of the network users. (b) Scale of student users. (c) Utilization rate of netizens.
According to Figures 3 and 4, new media has a huge impact on both the living and learning methods of college students. With the population of the Internet, teenagers can learn about political news, broaden their interests, expand their social scales, and obtain more learning resources, from new media. This new media type has a significant impact on today's college students' lives, enhancing their ability to self-learn and innovate. The development of the new media era is speeding up. At present, we step into the 5G era from the earliest 2G era. College students should update their knowledge in time, keep up with the step of the times, and focus on social hot topics to adapt to rapid changes in the rhythm of the times. College students get close to the outside through the Internet. They accumulate more knowledge and social skill via new media. What teachers do not mention in the class they can learn by themselves through knowledge and information on several new media, which improves their ability of self-study.
3.2. Impacts of "xuexi.cn" App on the IPE in College
There were 288 online questionnaires released to college students to survey the utilization of "xuexi.cn" App through the "wjx.cn" website. The question "have you ever used or heard of the 'xuexi.cn' App?" eliminated seven invalid surveys answered by people who have never used or heard of the App. There were 281 questionnaires in all. The valid rate of the questionnaires is 97.6%. Questionnaires include these indexes: time segment of using "xuexi.cn" App, using the frequency of "xuexi.cn" App, durable hours of using "xuexi.cn" App, using the frequency of each function, and ways of using "xuexi.cn" App. Figure 5 shows the frequency and durable hours of the utilization of "xuexi.cn" App by college students.
Graph: Figure 5 Frequency and durable hours of the utilization of "xuexi.cn" App by college students. (a) Frequency. (b) Durable hours.
According to Figure 5(a), 74.32% college students learnt on "xuexi.cn" App every day. 14.3% and 9.21% of college students, respectively, used the App 4-5 times and 2-3 times. Only 2.17% of college students uses the App less than once a week. These figures indicate that most college students use the App frequently, and the contents of the App are attractive to them. College students show their regard to the App, so they can get more effective IPE from the App. Figure 5(b) shows statistical results of durable hours of students who use the App 4-5 times a week and those who use the App every day. Calculated from Figure 5(b), the average durable hours are more than 3 hours, which is due to the favors of students. Colleges could use the App to conduct IPE then make statistical analyses of the durable hours of a single use of the App by students. Figure 6 shows the results of the analyses.
Graph: Figure 6 Analyses of motivations and interests of students.
According to Figure 6, durable hours of using the App of 22.06% of college students are longer than 60 minutes; durable hours are between 20 and 30 minutes for 12.78% of users. Similarly, durable hours are between 30 and 60 minutes for 54.74% of users, and durable hours are not more than 10 minutes for only 2.3% of users. From these statistical results, a conclusion can be drawn that the contents of the App are very attractive to college students. Besides, utilization of each function of the App and types of mobile equipment are statistically analyzed, as shown in Figure 7.
Graph: Figure 7 Analyses of the utilization of the App functions and accesses to the "xuexi.cn". (a) Utilization rate of the functions in the "xuexi.cn" App. (b) Accesses to the "xuexi.cn".
According to Figure 7(a), the most used functions are "self-examination," "like," and "subscribe." Users can get scores from "self-examination" to make them frontier in the "learning list." Analyzing Figure 7(b), the major access to "xuexi.cn" is the mobile terminal. Personality, convenience, and interactivity of the mobile terminal are attractive to users, which indicates that with the development in the mobile equipment media is transmitted from the PC to the mobile terminal. Mobile App is becoming the new measure of transmitting the information.
Low teaching efficiency is currently a common problem of the IPE, and it is crucial to improve the teaching efficiency and realize the intelligent information transformation of the IPE in colleges and universities. This study examined how mobile media may be used to promote IPE in colleges and universities. The concepts, features, and types of new media under 5G are identified, as well as specific forms, opportunities, and challenges of new media applications in college ideological and political education were determined. Moreover, using the "xuexi.cn" application software, the use of new media Apps among college students was explored. The outcomes of this study suggest that several new media mobile applications have the best foreground in media technology, and the incorporation of new media technologies into ideological and political education is not only a new technique but also a compliment and extension of old ideological and political courses. Colleges should strengthen the construction of new media platforms and interactions by using instant messaging software. Colleges should positively popularize new media into ideological and political education facing both teachers and students. Future work is required to understand the application of 5G and advanced communications in IPE and learn to use technology correctly in a reasonable scene.
The data used to support the findings of this study are included within the article.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
This work was funded by the Research Project of Ideological and Political Work in Colleges and Universities of Hunan Province in 2020: Research on the Ability of the College and University Teachers' Curriculum Ideological and Political Education (number 20C12).
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By Guangming He and Yan Huang
Reported by Author; Author
2College of Marxism, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, China