The book is devoted to the utilization of modern techniques and methods of chemical analysis in archaeological research. It describes analytical procedures in the context of cooperation between analyst and archaeologist – starting from sampling, further through sample preparation and up to the analysis itself. Although classical techniques are also presented, the book is focused on the use of contemporary instrumental analytical techniques. Due to the irreplaceability of bioanalytical methods in modern archaeological research, the book also contains an extensive chapter focused on the analysis of biomacromolecules with an overlap into archaeogenetics and protein analysis. The book reflects the multidisciplinarity of research in archaeology and heritage science and indicates the potential of utilization of linking results from the fields of metabolomics, proteomics and genetics. Each of these chapters represents a synthesis of an overview of information from the original journal literature, the authors'own work and a critical evaluation of the state of research in the field. The book presents the opportunities for application of systematic scientific research in a number of applications and causal chapters, based on the experience of the authors and their past and current research and with a prospect to the near future. It is intended for archaeologists to provide them with detailed information on the possibilities as well as the pitfalls of current analytical procedures and for analytic chemists interested in research in the field of history, archaeology and cultural heritage.